Pencil Leads– NOT actual lead, but graphite. Pencil leads are not harmful to health.

Pencil Gradations– the range of pencils from light to dark. The range from light to dark are seen in the below picture.

Sanding Block– a small stack of sandpaper that is typically affixed to a wooden board (or similar surface.) The sanding block is used by artists to sharpen the graphite only, NOT the wood.

Pencil Extender– a small device that is affixed on to the end of shorter pencils, so that the life of the pencil is lengthened

Kneaded Eraser– a soft eraser that is malleable in shape, which can be used to gently remove larger passages of a drawing, or to generally lighten larger passages of a drawing

Hard Eraser– there are many types of hard erasers (gum, vinyl, etc). These erasers are for more precise, sharp removal, or are for more aggressive removal of larger passages

Blending Stump– a small, paper cone that is shaped like a pointed pinky finger. It is used to soften passages of a drawing, and to fuse moments together

Sharpening Knife– a blade (box cutter, small pocket knife, etc) or a potato peeler that is used to remove the wood of the pencil. Once the wood is removed, the remaining graphite is sharpened on a sanding block. Though a blade can also be used to remove graphite, this is a precarious practice, and must be done with care, or the blade/peeler will easily snap the graphite.

Mechanical Pencil– an automatic pencil that drives graphite leads of varying diameters, used (but not limited to) drawings that are schematic in nature. A mechanical pencil is typically not as responsive to applied pressure, in that the stroke does not go thicker as more pressure is applied. Rather, a mechanical pencil has the strength of giving a crisp, consistent incised line.

Mechanical Pencil diameters
.35 leads are very fragile, but the line is crisp and super sharp.
.5 leads are considerably stronger, and the line is crisp, sharp, and dense
.7 leads are very strong, and the line is wide, and very dense.
.9 leads are extremely strong, and the line is extremely broad, and dense. These leads are somewhat more responsive to pressure, because they are wider and will not snap.

Graphite Barrel Pencils– These are pencils with very wide graphite barrels, which can be sharpened to a fine tip. They are somewhat different in design than a typical mechanical pencil, in that the lead is so broad that it is in a different category.

White Chalk Pencil– a white, powdery pencil that pairs with toned paper, these pencils can be used to indicate light in a drawing, called “heightening”

White Conté Pencil– same as a white chalk pencil, but the white material is more oily in nature

Toned Paper– paper that has been darkened by any color or value. Typically, this paper is used in conjunction with white pencil media, such as white chalk or white conté pencil. This paper has the benefit of already satisfying all the midtones in a drawing, so that the artist can primarily address the twin poles of dark shadow, and brightest light.

Sketch Paper– a simple, common sheet of paper that is not too expensive, and yet receives the graphite nicely. Typically, this “throwaway” paper is often (though not always) on the thinner side, and not too bulky. Note: sketch paper is typically not balanced in pH, and so will deteriorate over time

Bristol Paper– a hearty, strong paper that comes in various thicknesses, called “ply”

Ply– the thickness of a paper. For instance, one ply paper is quite thin. Two ply paper is twice as thick, and somewhat more resilient. Three ply paper is very thick, et al. Note: the thickness of a paper can also be measured by GSM

GSM– Grams per Square Meter, this is a means of measuring the weight/heftiness of a paper. Literally, a square meter of any given paper is cut, and weighed. And so, if a paper weights 40 gsm, it would be considerably thinner than paper that weighs 300 gsm

Background -The negative space behind the positive, foreground object.

External Contour -The imaginary line we superimpose on the external perimeter of an object.

Half Tone -Not deep shadow, not bright highlight, the values in between.

Highlight -The brightest bright area, receiving the most direct force of light.

Deep Shadow -The darkest area on a as a consequence of receiving the least amount of light.

Reflected Light -Secondary light which strikes the far side of a form, as a consequence. – a secondary light which does not come from the principal source, but rather, from the bouncing back of light on the far side of the shadow.

Cast Shadow -The absence of light on a secondary form, beyond the principal form, where light cannot reach. Example: an egg on a table. In the flow of light, an egg is the primary form which obstructs the flow of light. The table is the secondary form which is beyond the primary form. The light cannot reach the table beyond the egg, and a cast shadow is the result.

Shadow Shape– The boundary between light and dark, a line which we force ourselves to see which demarcated the border between what is discerned as light and what is determined as state, typically occurring at the plane change on a form.